Detection of unauthorized IoT devices using machine learning techniques

Yair Meidan, Michael Bohadana, Asaf Shabtai, Martin Ochoa, Nils Ole Tippenhauer, Juan Davis Guarnizo, Yuval Elovici

arXiv preprint arXiv:1709.04647, 2017

Security experts have demonstrated numerous risks imposed by Internet of Things (IoT) devices on organizations. Due to the widespread adoption of such devices, their diversity, standardization obstacles, and inherent mobility, organizations require an intelligent mechanism capable of automatically detecting suspicious IoT devices connected to their networks. In particular, devices not included in a white list of trustworthy IoT device types (allowed to be used within the organizational premises) should be detected. In this research, Random Forest, a supervised machine learning algorithm, was applied to features extracted from network traffic data with the aim of accurately identifying IoT device types from the white list. To train and evaluate multi-class classifiers, we collected and manually labeled network traffic data from 17 distinct IoT devices, representing nine types of IoT devices. Based on the classification of 20 consecutive sessions and the use of majority rule, IoT device types that are not on the white list were correctly detected as unknown in 96% of test cases (on average), and white listed device types were correctly classified by their actual types in 99% of cases. Some IoT device types were identified quicker than others (e.g., sockets and thermostats were successfully detected within five TCP sessions of connecting to the network). Perfect detection of unauthorized IoT device types was achieved upon analyzing 110 consecutive sessions; perfect classification of white listed types required 346 consecutive sessions, 110 of which resulted in 99.49% accuracy. Further experiments demonstrated the successful applicability of classifiers trained …